Key Informant Interviews

Instructions
need to work by following this MS word document and this is of subject Asia-contemporary china
You have been asked by your friend David to assist his first trip to China next month. David’s destination is a village in rural Hubei Province of central China, the hometown of his collegemate Xiang Li. Xiang Li sent a few photos to David with his invitation, but these pictures along with Xiang Li’s description really confused David. Please help David to understand the images of the following photos …What can you tell David about them? {There is no photo, but the discriptions of photos, which is more helpful for you to locate the focus of the topic.}

Photo 1: The Tian An-men Square in Beijing. [Xiang Li said the famous “Tian An-men Square” is a sensitive word every June, as the Government tries to hide the truth of an incident happened here in 1989. David wants to know what happened.] (Answers should NOT be less than 150 words, 5%)

Photo 2: Xiang’s grandfather in a battlefield in Korea. [Xiang said that his grandfather was proud of attending the Korea War. David wants to know why Xing’s grandfather went to Korea to fight.]  (Answers should NOT be less than 150 words, 5%)

Photo 3: Xiang Li is standing beside the president and the party secretary of his university. [Xiang Li said the two men are both the leaders of the university. David wants to know why there are two leaders at the same university.] (Answers should NOT be less than 150 words,5%)

Part II
The following is an excerpt of the article “Sport and Politics: The Cultural Revolution in the Chinese Sports Ministry, 1966–1976” by Lu Zhouxiang.
Please read the article and answer the questions. You can find the article on the next page.
According to the author, “Mao wanted to use the revolution to re-establish the ideological purity of communism”. Please explain what Mao did in the revolution to achieve this goal.
(Answers should NOT be less than 150 words,5%)

Why did Rong become the target of the Red Guards? Who were these Red Guards? The author does not mention in the article how these Red Guards would condemn Rong. Do you know how they would treat him?
(Answers should NOT be less than 150 words,5%)
Sport and Politics: The Cultural Revolution in the Chinese Sports Ministry, 1966–1976
Lu Zhouxiang
The Cultural Revolution was launched by Mao Zedong (1893–1976), Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), in early 1966. The objectives of the revolution were twofold. The first was to regain control over fundamental Party decisions, which were increasingly being influenced by right-wing CCP leaders headed by Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969). In addition to this power struggle, Mao wanted to use the revolution to re-establish the ideological purity of communism, which he believed was being threatened by ‘revisionists’ and ‘capitalists’, and to recreate Mao Zedong Thought accordingly. The strategy was to mobilize the Chinese people, especially the students, to follow the Maoist road and fight against anybody who opposed this road/ideology. The Cultural Revolution lasted for 10 years. It led to purges, persecution and social chaos, and brought the country to the verge of collapse.
The Cultural Revolution reached every corner of Chinese society and the sport system was no exception. Answering the call of Chairman Mao, in May 1966, Red Guards from Beijing Sport University and staff members from the Sports Ministry began their offensive against ‘authorities’ and ‘experts’ who were ‘hiding’ in the Sports Ministry and its local commissions. Cadres at all levels were attacked. By August 1966, sports commissions at provincial, municipal and county levels could no longer function normally. At the headquarters of the Sports Ministry in Beijing, Rong Gaotang (1902–2006), Vice-Chairman of the All-China Sports Federation and Vice-Minister of the Sports Ministry, became a target for the Red Guards.
The onslaught against Rong started when a letter was sent to the Central Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the CCP by a provincial sports commission, accusing Rong of betraying the Maoist road because he used to argue in a seminar that the mistakes made by Chairman Mao could fill up a truck. After Mao initiated the ‘Bombard the Headquarters’ campaign in August 1966 and launched the Revolution nationally, the Red Guards from Beijing Sport University and rebels from the Sports Ministry began attacking Rong Gaotang. According to an interview with a former official in the Sports Ministry, at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, less than 10 percent of the staff in the Sports Ministry joined the rebels and attacked Rong Gaotang. About 80 percent of the staff were conservatives and did not join the campaign.

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