Final exam1 | Accounting homework help

MULTIPLE CHOICE SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please

answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. The Multiple Choice section is

worth 60 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select as the best answer on

the Answer Sheet provided.

1. What is biology?

A) The study of life

B) The study of the environment

C) The study of DNA

D) The study of genetics

E) The study of the earth

2. Which of the following can be considered definitions of “theory”?

A) A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws.

B) A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large

body of observations.

C) A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared

unrelated.

D) A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural

phenomena.

E) All of the above.

3. An integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses is known as a ______.

A) fact

B) law

C) control

D) theory

E) guess

 

Page 2 of 17

 

 

4. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?

I. State a problem

II. Analyze and interpret data

III. Develop a hypothesis

IV. Share the results with other scientists

V. Design and perform experiment to test the hypothesis

A) I – II -III -IV – V

B) III – I -V– II –IV

C) V – IV –III – II – I

D) I – III – V– II – IV

E) V – II –I – III -IV

5. To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel.

Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?

A) In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the control group,

that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

B) In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the experimental group,

that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

C) In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered. In the

control group, the chosen variable is altered; however, all other variables are held constant.

D) In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.

E) Experimental and control groups experiments are identical and run in parallel to get

repeatable results.

6. The smallest unit of life is the

A) cell

B) organelle

C) macromolecule

D) atom

7.You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well defined nucleus. You conclude

the cell must a _____________________ cell.

A) prokaryotic

B) eukaryotic

C) plant

D) animal

8. All of the following are examples of elements except?

A) oxygen

B) water

C) hydrogen

D) carbon

 

9. Two atoms with the same atomic number, but different mass numbers are called____________.

 

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A) radioactive

B) isotopes

C) proteins

D) electrons

E) nuclei

10. Select the element that is not one of the four most common elements in living matter.

A) carbon

B) hydrogen

C) nitrogen

D) oxygen

E) phosphorous

11. Organic compounds consist mainly of ________ atoms.

A) oxygen

B) nitrogen

C) calcium

D) carbon

E) phosphorous

12. A substance with a pH greater than 7 is ___________, while a substance with a pH less that 7 is

___________.

A) basic, acidic

B) acidic, basic

C) basic, neutral

D) neutral, acidic

E) neutral, basic

13. The bond in which 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is a ______________ bond.

A) polar

B) hydrogen

C) ionic

D) covalent

14. The energy required for photosynthesis is provided by?

A) proteins

B) sunlight

C) chlorophyll

D) carbohydrates

E) lipids

15. The term below that includes the other terms is

A) atom

B) molecule

C) electron

D) element

16. An element has 43 protons and 50 neutrons. The atomic number of the element is

___________________.

 

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A) 43

B) 50

C) 86

D) 93

E) 100

17. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called

___________________________________.

A) facilitated diffusion

B) active transport

C) osmosis

D) phagocytosis

E) endocytosis

18. A dog gets many nutrients from its food including amino acids. Which of these can be built

directly using the amino acids _________________________.

A) proteins

B) carbohydrates

C) lipids

D) nucleic acids

E) glucose

19. Most carbohydrates in the human body are ___________________________.

A) used as building blocks for proteins

B) used as catalysts for reactions in cells

C) consumed as a source of energy

D) not easily absorbed into the bloodstream

E) not necessary for regular bodily functions

20. A scientist removed the plasma membranes from bacteria cells in a culture. She analyzed the cell

membranes for specific molecules. Which of these was probably the most common type of

molecule present in the bacteria plasma membranes?

A) carbohydrate

B) nucleic acid

C) amino acid

D) lipid

E) ATP

21. The site of protein synthesis in the cell is ___________________________.

A) the mitochondria

B) the nucleus

C) the Golgi apparatus

D) the ribosomes

 

22. Cyanide is a poison that prevents mitochondria from using oxygen. As a result, the mitochondria

cannot produce __________.

A) lipids

 

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B) proteins

C) energy

D) sugars

E) nucleic acids

23. The replication of DNA ______________________________________________.

A) produces RNA molecules

B) produces completely new strands of DNA

C) produces two DNA molecules, each of which is half-“new” and half-“old” DNA

D) generates excessive DNA, which eventually causes the nucleus to divide

24. The form of RNA that is complementary to DNA and carries the code from the DNA to the site where

the protein is synthesized is ______________________________________.

A) messenger RNA

B) nuclear RNA

C) ribosomal RNA

D) transfer RNA

25. If the amounts of bases in a DNA molecule are measured, you would find that

_______________________________.

A) A = C and G=T

B) A = G and C=T

C) T = Aand C =G

D) A = U and C=G

E) U = Cand A =G

26. In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant.The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a

woman (DD) and a man (Dd) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?

A) 0

B) 1

C) 2

D) 3

E) 4

27. Which of these statements best explains how genes and proteins are related?

A) Genes are segments of DNA that code for proteins.

B) Proteins are segments of DNA that code for genes.

C) Genes are segments of proteins that code for DNA.

D) Proteins are the building blocks of genes.

E) Genes are the building blocks of proteins.

 

28. Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?

A) GCGUUU

B) UAUGCG

C) ATGCGT

 

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D) AUGCGU

E) AAACUG

29. Information stored in DNA is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in the

form of ________.

A) lipids

B) DNA

C) RNA

D) proteins

E) carbohydrates

30. Researchers are studying slider turtles. Slider turtles hatch on the beach and travel to the sea. The

researchers discover that the larger baby turtles were more likely to survive than the smaller baby turtles.

They hypothesized that the larger turtles could move more quickly toward the water than the smaller

turtles, and therefore, the larger turtles reduced their exposure to predators.

The survival advantage for the larger baby turtles is a result of __________________________.

A) natural selection

B) genetic engineering

C) diversity

D) artificial selection

E) migration

31. The theory of natural selection states that

____________________________________________________________________.

A) some live and some die in each generation.

B) only the largest and strongest survive.

C) random assortment of genes results in better characteristics in the following generations.

D) the best adapted individuals survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next

generation.

E) individuals that mutate in response to their environment will survive.

32. Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve are produced

______________________________.

A) by chance

B) as a response to environmental

C) as a response to selection pressure

D) by natural selection

E) by artificial selection

 

33.When a biologist studies the way organisms interact with each other and with their environment, they

are studying their____________________.

A) physiology

B) anatomy

C) chemistry

D) genetics

 

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E) ecology

34. In a deciduous oak forest of the American northeast, one example of an abiotic component of the

ecosystem would be ____________________________.

A) worms in the soil that feed on plant roots

B) worms in the soil that feed on dead organic matter

C) sunlight that filters through the canopy

D) animals such as deer that migrate through the forest but do not eat in the forest

E) plants and animals in the same area

35. Which of the following activities decreases greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?

A) Cutting down trees.

B) Driving gasoline powered vehicles.

C) Using electricity from coal-powered plants.

D) Planting trees.

E) Heating your home.

 

36. If a bird eats an insect that ate a plant, the bird would be considered a(n)

_______________________.

A) autotroph

B) primary producer

C) primary consumer

D) secondary consumer

E) tertiary consumer

37. When energy is converted from one form to another, some of the original energy is “lost” as

________.

A) water

B) heat

C) electrons

D) mechanical energy

E) electrical energy

38. The statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth is

______________________.

A) plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2

B) animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2

C) plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O

D) animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O

 

39. What do plants and animals have in common?

A) They are both heterotrophic.

B) They are both autotrophic.

C) They are both prokaryotic.

D) They are both eukaryotic.

E) The are both hydrophobic

 

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40. The innermost electron shell of an atom holds a maximum of ________ electrons.

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

D) 8

E) 10

41. Elephants travel long distances in search of food. Using vibrations felt in the ground, family

members traveling separately can communicate with each other. Based on your knowledge of

evolution, the ability to communicate over long distances probably developed

___________________________.

A) slowly over millions of years

B) by accident

C) over a ten year period

D) as a strategy to decrease reproduction

E) as a way to communicate with humans

42. The plasma membrane is _____________________.

A) completely permeable

B) selectively permeable

C) impermeable

D) found only in eukaryotic cells

E) found only in prokaryotic cells

43. Humans are composed of ______ cells.

A) prokaryotic

B) bacterial

C) eukaryotic

D) viral

E) fungal

44. Certain fungi that are important in nutrient recycling because they release nutrients from dead

organisms back into the ecosystem are _____________________.

A) producers

B) consumers

C) decomposers

D) recyclers

E) feeders

 

45. Humans are ______.

A) ecosystems

B) consumers

C) decomposers

D) cells

E) producers

46. One of the end products of respiration is _____________.

 

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A) glucose

B) starch

C) sucrose

D) water

E) oxygen

47.A protein molecule which is denatured, has __________________________.

A) split into smaller molecules

B) changed its shape

C) combined with another molecule

D) been diluted..

48. ___________________ is the term that refers to the energy-requiring movement of a substance

across a biological membrane .

A) facilitated diffusion

B) active transport

C) osmosis

D) diffusion

E) endocytosis

49. All of the following are characteristics of life except _____________________________________.

A) growth

B) homeostasis

C) movement

D) reproduction

E) energy use

50. In the scientific method, a hypothesis __________.

A) is a statement of fact

B) makes a prediction that can be tested

C) is usually proven to be correct

D) can only be tested once

E) all of these

 

51. Think of the cell as a factory, in which the organelles are specialized sites of production. All cells have

a power plant, the mitochondrion. Plant cells have an additional “reactor” for the production of usable

energy. It is called the _____.

A) golgi body

B) rough endoplasmic reticulum

C) central vacuole

D) vesicle

E) chloroplast

52.

 

You have formulated a hypothesis that light is necessary for seed germination.

 

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To test your hypothesis, one set of lettuce seeds is placed in light with warm

temperatures and adequate moisture. Another set of identical seeds is placed in

the dark under the same set of conditions. The control in the experiment is

(a) seeds in the dark

(b) seeds in the light

(c) warm temperature

(d) adequate moisture

(e) germination rate

 

53.

A group of medical researchers recently tested the effects of a cholesterol-lowering medication,

Drug A on men who had high blood levels of cholesterol. The researchers did the following experiment

and obtained the indicated results. One group of 150 men took a tablet containing 40 mg of Drug A for 90

days; 120 of this group decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10 %. Another group of 150

men was given a tablet with no added Drug A for 90 days; 25 of these men decreased their blood levels

of cholesterol by at least 10%.

Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on

results obtained in this experiment?

A) Drug A is good for men

B) Drug A is found in the blood of men

C) men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show a decrease in cholesterol

levels in the blood

D) men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show an increase in cholesterol

levels in the blood

E) blood levels of cholesterol are not affected by oral supplementation of Drug A

54.

 

The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant

to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation?

(a) The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics

(b) The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics

(c) Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea

bacteria have flourished and persisted

(d) The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria

(e) both b and d

 

55.

 

Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth?

(a) Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2

(b) Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2

(c) Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O

(d) Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O

 

56.

A researcher planted seeds from four types of wheat (Types A, B, C, and D) in a greenhouse to

determine which type of wheat grew fastest. The plants were grown for 10 days and measured. The

results are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Type C wheat grew the fastest.

1

 

(a) A = 20 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 5 cm, D= 2 cm.

 

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2

3

4

5

 

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

 

A = 2 cm, B = 5 cm, C= 1 cm, D= 2 cm.

A = 22 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 25 cm, D= 4 cm.

A = 30 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 28 cm, D= 1 cm.

A = 21 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 20 cm, D= 15 cm.

 

Use the following information to answer questions 57 & 58 below. A group of medical researchers

recently investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering blood pressure in a group of hypertensive middleaged women. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One

group of 150 women took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks – 95 of these women decreased their

blood pressure by at least 10% (three women from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of

150 women was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks – 10 of these women decreased their

blood pressure by at least 10% (two women from this group dropped out of the study).

57. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?

a. the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X.

b. the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X

c. the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

d. the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment

e. the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

58. Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on the results

obtained in this experiment?

a. Drug X is good for hypertensive women.

b. Drug X is good for both men and women.

c. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show a decrease in blood

pressure.

d. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show an increase in blood

pressure.

e. Drug X has no effect on blood pressure.

59.A proton has ____ charge.

a. no

b. a neutral

 

c. a negative

d. a positive

 

60.Electrons are located

a. in the core of an atom.

b. only in complex molecules.

c. in a shell that surrounds the atom’s core.

d. in both the core and inner shell of an atom.

 

************************************************************************************************************

MATCHING SECTION #1

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all

questions. Each question is worth 1 point. This Matching section is worth 10 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as

the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

TERM or CONCEPT

 

Definition/Association

 

 

1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

2. chromosome

3. crossing over

4. gamete

5. gene

6. germ cell

7.meiosis

8. mitosis

9. translation

10. transcription

 

A. DNA molecule with attached proteins

B. a haploid cell that combines with another

haploid cell during fertilization

C. a specific portion of a chromosome that contains

information for a particular inherited trait

D. a type of cell whose primary function is the

formation of gametes for sexual reproduction

E. an interaction during meiosis in which

chromatids exchange segments; results in genetic

recombination

F. nucleotide that drives most energy-requiring

metabolic reactions

G. the process in which ribosomes synthesize

proteins using the mRNA transcript

H. the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template

I. the type of cell division which is used in asexual

reproduction and tissue growth and repair

J. the type of cell division responsible for gamete

formation and sexual reproduction

 

MATCHING SECTION #2

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all

questions. Each question is worth 1 point. This Matching section is worth 10 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as

the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

TERM or CONCEPT

1. microtubules

2. chloroplasts

 

Definition/Association

 

A. contain enzymes for intracellular digestion

B. are primary cellular structures (or components)

where proteins are assembled

 

3. Golgi bodies

4. DNA molecules

5. RNA molecules

6. central vacuoles

7. lysosomes

8. mitochondria

9. nucleoli

10. ribosomes

C. package cellular secretions for export

D. extract energy stored in carbohydrates;

synthesize ATP; produce water and carbon dioxide

E. synthesize subunits that will be assembled into

two part ribosomes in the cytoplasm

F. translate hereditary instructions into specific

proteins

G. increase cell surface area; store substances

H. encode hereditary information

I. help distribute chromosomes to the new cells

during cell division

J. convert light energy to chemical energy stored in

the chemical bonds of glucose or starch

 

SHORT ANSWER SECTION

Complete ALL questions in this Short Answer Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 5 points. Total points for this section is 20

points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided

by your instructor.

 

 

 

1) Lithops, also called Stoneplants, are a type of plant that resembles little stones. These

plants have the ability to blend in with there surrounding, which affords them protection

from predators. If you were in an area containing Lithops, describe four characteristics you could identify

to distinguish these plants from the stones they mimic.

2) A population of grasshoppers in the Kansas prairie has two color phenotypes, green and

brown. Typically, the prairie receives adequate water to maintain healthy, green grass.

Assume a bird that eats grasshoppers moves into the prairie. How will this affect natural

selection of the grasshoppers? How might this change in a drought year?

3) DNA and RNA are similar yet distinct components of the cell. Describe three differences

between RNA and DNA with respect to their chemical composition and structure. Provide a

detailed description of each characteristic you chose in your response.

4) Give an example of how human activities can change the environment.

 

ESSAY SECTION

Complete ALL questions in this Essay Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 10 points. Total points for this section is 50

points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided

by your instructor.

REQUIRED QUESTIONS

 

 

1. Before bringing a new drug to the marketplace, extensive testing is done on the drug by

administering the drug to large numbers of individuals. Explain the importance of the scientific

method, sample size, controls and variable in the drug evaluation process.

 

2. List the four “large molecules of life.” Identify their composition and structure, (in detail) and

describe one function they perform in the cell.

 

3. How can you explain the occurrence of birth defects (caused by altered genes) in children

and grandchildren of WWII atomic bomb victims, when the victims themselves were only mildly

affected?

 

4. During the past 50 years, more than 200 species of insects that attack crop plants have

become highly resistant to DDT and other pesticides. Based on what you have learned in this

class regarding evolution, explain the rapid and widespread evolution of resistance. Now that

DDT has been banned in the US, what do yoMULTIPLE CHOICE SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please

answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. The Multiple Choice section is

worth 60 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select as the best answer on

the Answer Sheet provided.

1. What is biology?

A) The study of life

B) The study of the environment

C) The study of DNA

D) The study of genetics

E) The study of the earth

2. Which of the following can be considered definitions of “theory”?

A) A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws.

B) A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large

body of observations.

C) A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared

unrelated.

D) A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural

phenomena.

E) All of the above.

3. An integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses is known as a ______.

A) fact

B) law

C) control

D) theory

E) guess

 

Page 2 of 17

 

 

4. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?

I. State a problem

II. Analyze and interpret data

III. Develop a hypothesis

IV. Share the results with other scientists

V. Design and perform experiment to test the hypothesis

A) I – II -III -IV – V

B) III – I -V– II –IV

C) V – IV –III – II – I

D) I – III – V– II – IV

E) V – II –I – III -IV

5. To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel.

Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?

A) In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the control group,

that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

B) In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the experimental group,

that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

C) In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered. In the

control group, the chosen variable is altered; however, all other variables are held constant.

D) In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.

E) Experimental and control groups experiments are identical and run in parallel to get

repeatable results.

6. The smallest unit of life is the

A) cell

B) organelle

C) macromolecule

D) atom

7.You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well defined nucleus. You conclude

the cell must a _____________________ cell.

A) prokaryotic

B) eukaryotic

C) plant

D) animal

8. All of the following are examples of elements except?

A) oxygen

B) water

C) hydrogen

D) carbon

 

9. Two atoms with the same atomic number, but different mass numbers are called____________.

 

Page 3 of 17

 

 

A) radioactive

B) isotopes

C) proteins

D) electrons

E) nuclei

10. Select the element that is not one of the four most common elements in living matter.

A) carbon

B) hydrogen

C) nitrogen

D) oxygen

E) phosphorous

11. Organic compounds consist mainly of ________ atoms.

A) oxygen

B) nitrogen

C) calcium

D) carbon

E) phosphorous

12. A substance with a pH greater than 7 is ___________, while a substance with a pH less that 7 is

___________.

A) basic, acidic

B) acidic, basic

C) basic, neutral

D) neutral, acidic

E) neutral, basic

13. The bond in which 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is a ______________ bond.

A) polar

B) hydrogen

C) ionic

D) covalent

14. The energy required for photosynthesis is provided by?

A) proteins

B) sunlight

C) chlorophyll

D) carbohydrates

E) lipids

15. The term below that includes the other terms is

A) atom

B) molecule

C) electron

D) element

16. An element has 43 protons and 50 neutrons. The atomic number of the element is

___________________.

 

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A) 43

B) 50

C) 86

D) 93

E) 100

17. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called

___________________________________.

A) facilitated diffusion

B) active transport

C) osmosis

D) phagocytosis

E) endocytosis

18. A dog gets many nutrients from its food including amino acids. Which of these can be built

directly using the amino acids _________________________.

A) proteins

B) carbohydrates

C) lipids

D) nucleic acids

E) glucose

19. Most carbohydrates in the human body are ___________________________.

A) used as building blocks for proteins

B) used as catalysts for reactions in cells

C) consumed as a source of energy

D) not easily absorbed into the bloodstream

E) not necessary for regular bodily functions

20. A scientist removed the plasma membranes from bacteria cells in a culture. She analyzed the cell

membranes for specific molecules. Which of these was probably the most common type of

molecule present in the bacteria plasma membranes?

A) carbohydrate

B) nucleic acid

C) amino acid

D) lipid

E) ATP

21. The site of protein synthesis in the cell is ___________________________.

A) the mitochondria

B) the nucleus

C) the Golgi apparatus

D) the ribosomes

 

22. Cyanide is a poison that prevents mitochondria from using oxygen. As a result, the mitochondria

cannot produce __________.

A) lipids

 

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B) proteins

C) energy

D) sugars

E) nucleic acids

23. The replication of DNA ______________________________________________.

A) produces RNA molecules

B) produces completely new strands of DNA

C) produces two DNA molecules, each of which is half-“new” and half-“old” DNA

D) generates excessive DNA, which eventually causes the nucleus to divide

24. The form of RNA that is complementary to DNA and carries the code from the DNA to the site where

the protein is synthesized is ______________________________________.

A) messenger RNA

B) nuclear RNA

C) ribosomal RNA

D) transfer RNA

25. If the amounts of bases in a DNA molecule are measured, you would find that

_______________________________.

A) A = C and G=T

B) A = G and C=T

C) T = Aand C =G

D) A = U and C=G

E) U = Cand A =G

26. In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant.The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a

woman (DD) and a man (Dd) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?

A) 0

B) 1

C) 2

D) 3

E) 4

27. Which of these statements best explains how genes and proteins are related?

A) Genes are segments of DNA that code for proteins.

B) Proteins are segments of DNA that code for genes.

C) Genes are segments of proteins that code for DNA.

D) Proteins are the building blocks of genes.

E) Genes are the building blocks of proteins.

 

28. Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?

A) GCGUUU

B) UAUGCG

C) ATGCGT

 

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D) AUGCGU

E) AAACUG

29. Information stored in DNA is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in the

form of ________.

A) lipids

B) DNA

C) RNA

D) proteins

E) carbohydrates

30. Researchers are studying slider turtles. Slider turtles hatch on the beach and travel to the sea. The

researchers discover that the larger baby turtles were more likely to survive than the smaller baby turtles.

They hypothesized that the larger turtles could move more quickly toward the water than the smaller

turtles, and therefore, the larger turtles reduced their exposure to predators.

The survival advantage for the larger baby turtles is a result of __________________________.

A) natural selection

B) genetic engineering

C) diversity

D) artificial selection

E) migration

31. The theory of natural selection states that

____________________________________________________________________.

A) some live and some die in each generation.

B) only the largest and strongest survive.

C) random assortment of genes results in better characteristics in the following generations.

D) the best adapted individuals survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next

generation.

E) individuals that mutate in response to their environment will survive.

32. Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve are produced

______________________________.

A) by chance

B) as a response to environmental

C) as a response to selection pressure

D) by natural selection

E) by artificial selection

 

33.When a biologist studies the way organisms interact with each other and with their environment, they

are studying their____________________.

A) physiology

B) anatomy

C) chemistry

D) genetics

 

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E) ecology

34. In a deciduous oak forest of the American northeast, one example of an abiotic component of the

ecosystem would be ____________________________.

A) worms in the soil that feed on plant roots

B) worms in the soil that feed on dead organic matter

C) sunlight that filters through the canopy

D) animals such as deer that migrate through the forest but do not eat in the forest

E) plants and animals in the same area

35. Which of the following activities decreases greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?

A) Cutting down trees.

B) Driving gasoline powered vehicles.

C) Using electricity from coal-powered plants.

D) Planting trees.

E) Heating your home.

 

36. If a bird eats an insect that ate a plant, the bird would be considered a(n)

_______________________.

A) autotroph

B) primary producer

C) primary consumer

D) secondary consumer

E) tertiary consumer

37. When energy is converted from one form to another, some of the original energy is “lost” as

________.

A) water

B) heat

C) electrons

D) mechanical energy

E) electrical energy

38. The statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth is

______________________.

A) plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2

B) animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2

C) plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O

D) animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O

 

39. What do plants and animals have in common?

A) They are both heterotrophic.

B) They are both autotrophic.

C) They are both prokaryotic.

D) They are both eukaryotic.

E) The are both hydrophobic

 

Page 8 of 17

 

 

40. The innermost electron shell of an atom holds a maximum of ________ electrons.

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

D) 8

E) 10

41. Elephants travel long distances in search of food. Using vibrations felt in the ground, family

members traveling separately can communicate with each other. Based on your knowledge of

evolution, the ability to communicate over long distances probably developed

___________________________.

A) slowly over millions of years

B) by accident

C) over a ten year period

D) as a strategy to decrease reproduction

E) as a way to communicate with humans

42. The plasma membrane is _____________________.

A) completely permeable

B) selectively permeable

C) impermeable

D) found only in eukaryotic cells

E) found only in prokaryotic cells

43. Humans are composed of ______ cells.

A) prokaryotic

B) bacterial

C) eukaryotic

D) viral

E) fungal

44. Certain fungi that are important in nutrient recycling because they release nutrients from dead

organisms back into the ecosystem are _____________________.

A) producers

B) consumers

C) decomposers

D) recyclers

E) feeders

 

45. Humans are ______.

A) ecosystems

B) consumers

C) decomposers

D) cells

E) producers

46. One of the end products of respiration is _____________.

 

Page 9 of 17

 

 

A) glucose

B) starch

C) sucrose

D) water

E) oxygen

47.A protein molecule which is denatured, has __________________________.

A) split into smaller molecules

B) changed its shape

C) combined with another molecule

D) been diluted..

48. ___________________ is the term that refers to the energy-requiring movement of a substance

across a biological membrane .

A) facilitated diffusion

B) active transport

C) osmosis

D) diffusion

E) endocytosis

49. All of the following are characteristics of life except _____________________________________.

A) growth

B) homeostasis

C) movement

D) reproduction

E) energy use

50. In the scientific method, a hypothesis __________.

A) is a statement of fact

B) makes a prediction that can be tested

C) is usually proven to be correct

D) can only be tested once

E) all of these

 

51. Think of the cell as a factory, in which the organelles are specialized sites of production. All cells have

a power plant, the mitochondrion. Plant cells have an additional “reactor” for the production of usable

energy. It is called the _____.

A) golgi body

B) rough endoplasmic reticulum

C) central vacuole

D) vesicle

E) chloroplast

52.

 

You have formulated a hypothesis that light is necessary for seed germination.

 

Page 10 of 17

 

 

To test your hypothesis, one set of lettuce seeds is placed in light with warm

temperatures and adequate moisture. Another set of identical seeds is placed in

the dark under the same set of conditions. The control in the experiment is

(a) seeds in the dark

(b) seeds in the light

(c) warm temperature

(d) adequate moisture

(e) germination rate

 

53.

A group of medical researchers recently tested the effects of a cholesterol-lowering medication,

Drug A on men who had high blood levels of cholesterol. The researchers did the following experiment

and obtained the indicated results. One group of 150 men took a tablet containing 40 mg of Drug A for 90

days; 120 of this group decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10 %. Another group of 150

men was given a tablet with no added Drug A for 90 days; 25 of these men decreased their blood levels

of cholesterol by at least 10%.

Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on

results obtained in this experiment?

A) Drug A is good for men

B) Drug A is found in the blood of men

C) men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show a decrease in cholesterol

levels in the blood

D) men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show an increase in cholesterol

levels in the blood

E) blood levels of cholesterol are not affected by oral supplementation of Drug A

54.

 

The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant

to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation?

(a) The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics

(b) The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics

(c) Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea

bacteria have flourished and persisted

(d) The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria

(e) both b and d

 

55.

 

Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth?

(a) Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2

(b) Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2

(c) Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O

(d) Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O

 

56.

A researcher planted seeds from four types of wheat (Types A, B, C, and D) in a greenhouse to

determine which type of wheat grew fastest. The plants were grown for 10 days and measured. The

results are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Type C wheat grew the fastest.

1

 

(a) A = 20 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 5 cm, D= 2 cm.

 

Page 11 of 17

 

 

2

3

4

5

 

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

 

A = 2 cm, B = 5 cm, C= 1 cm, D= 2 cm.

A = 22 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 25 cm, D= 4 cm.

A = 30 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 28 cm, D= 1 cm.

A = 21 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 20 cm, D= 15 cm.

 

Use the following information to answer questions 57 & 58 below. A group of medical researchers

recently investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering blood pressure in a group of hypertensive middleaged women. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One

group of 150 women took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks – 95 of these women decreased their

blood pressure by at least 10% (three women from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of

150 women was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks – 10 of these women decreased their

blood pressure by at least 10% (two women from this group dropped out of the study).

57. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?

a. the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X.

b. the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X

c. the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

d. the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment

e. the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

58. Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on the results

obtained in this experiment?

a. Drug X is good for hypertensive women.

b. Drug X is good for both men and women.

c. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show a decrease in blood

pressure.

d. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show an increase in blood

pressure.

e. Drug X has no effect on blood pressure.

59.A proton has ____ charge.

a. no

b. a neutral

 

c. a negative

d. a positive

 

60.Electrons are located

a. in the core of an atom.

b. only in complex molecules.

c. in a shell that surrounds the atom’s core.

d. in both the core and inner shell of an atom.

 

************************************************************************************************************

MATCHING SECTION #1

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all

questions. Each question is worth 1 point. This Matching section is worth 10 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as

the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

TERM or CONCEPT

 

Definition/Association

 

 

1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

2. chromosome

3. crossing over

4. gamete

5. gene

6. germ cell

7.meiosis

8. mitosis

9. translation

10. transcription

 

A. DNA molecule with attached proteins

B. a haploid cell that combines with another

haploid cell during fertilization

C. a specific portion of a chromosome that contains

information for a particular inherited trait

D. a type of cell whose primary function is the

formation of gametes for sexual reproduction

E. an interaction during meiosis in which

chromatids exchange segments; results in genetic

recombination

F. nucleotide that drives most energy-requiring

metabolic reactions

G. the process in which ribosomes synthesize

proteins using the mRNA transcript

H. the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template

I. the type of cell division which is used in asexual

reproduction and tissue growth and repair

J. the type of cell division responsible for gamete

formation and sexual reproduction

 

MATCHING SECTION #2

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all

questions. Each question is worth 1 point. This Matching section is worth 10 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as

the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

TERM or CONCEPT

1. microtubules

2. chloroplasts

 

Definition/Association

 

A. contain enzymes for intracellular digestion

B. are primary cellular structures (or components)

where proteins are assembled

 

3. Golgi bodies

4. DNA molecules

5. RNA molecules

6. central vacuoles

7. lysosomes

8. mitochondria

9. nucleoli

10. ribosomes

C. package cellular secretions for export

D. extract energy stored in carbohydrates;

synthesize ATP; produce water and carbon dioxide

E. synthesize subunits that will be assembled into

two part ribosomes in the cytoplasm

F. translate hereditary instructions into specific

proteins

G. increase cell surface area; store substances

H. encode hereditary information

I. help distribute chromosomes to the new cells

during cell division

J. convert light energy to chemical energy stored in

the chemical bonds of glucose or starch

 

SHORT ANSWER SECTION

Complete ALL questions in this Short Answer Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 5 points. Total points for this section is 20

points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided

by your instructor.

 

 

 

1) Lithops, also called Stoneplants, are a type of plant that resembles little stones. These

plants have the ability to blend in with there surrounding, which affords them protection

from predators. If you were in an area containing Lithops, describe four characteristics you could identify

to distinguish these plants from the stones they mimic.

2) A population of grasshoppers in the Kansas prairie has two color phenotypes, green and

brown. Typically, the prairie receives adequate water to maintain healthy, green grass.

Assume a bird that eats grasshoppers moves into the prairie. How will this affect natural

selection of the grasshoppers? How might this change in a drought year?

3) DNA and RNA are similar yet distinct components of the cell. Describe three differences

between RNA and DNA with respect to their chemical composition and structure. Provide a

detailed description of each characteristic you chose in your response.

4) Give an example of how human activities can change the environment.

 

ESSAY SECTION

Complete ALL questions in this Essay Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 10 points. Total points for this section is 50

points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided

by your instructor.

REQUIRED QUESTIONS

 

 

1. Before bringing a new drug to the marketplace, extensive testing is done on the drug by

administering the drug to large numbers of individuals. Explain the importance of the scientific

method, sample size, controls and variable in the drug evaluation process.

 

2. List the four “large molecules of life.” Identify their composition and structure, (in detail) and

describe one function they perform in the cell.

 

3. How can you explain the occurrence of birth defects (caused by altered genes) in children

and grandchildren of WWII atomic bomb victims, when the victims themselves were only mildly

affected?

 

4. During the past 50 years, more than 200 species of insects that attack crop plants have

become highly resistant to DDT and other pesticides. Based on what you have learned in this

class regarding evolution, explain the rapid and widespread evolution of resistance. Now that

DDT has been banned in the US, what do you expect to happen to levels of resistance to DDT

among insect populations?

 

5. Water is crucial for life as we know it. One of the most important characteristics of water is its

ability to act as a solvent. Explain why water is such a good solvent for polar and charged

molecules.

u expect to happen to levels of resistance to DDT

among insect populations?

 

5. Water is crucial for life as we know it. One of the most important characteristics of water is its

ability to act as a solvent. Explain why water is such a good solvent for polar and charged

molecules.

 

Short Answer (Answer 4 Questions)

1) Lithops, also called Stone plants, are a type of plant that resembles little stones. These

plants have the ability to blend in with their surrounding, which affords them protection

from predators. If you were in an area containing Lithops, describe four characteristics you could identify to distinguish these plants from the stones they mimic.

2) A population of grasshoppers in the Kansas prairie has two color phenotypes, green and

brown. Typically, the prairie receives adequate water to maintain healthy, green grass.

Assume a bird that eats grasshoppers moves into the prairie. How will this affect natural

selection of the grasshoppers? How might this change in a drought year?

3) DNA and RNA are similar yet distinct components of the cell. Describe three differences

between RNA and DNA with respect to their chemical composition and structure. Provide a detailed description of each characteristic you chose in your response.

4) Give an example of how human activities can change the environment.

 

Essay (Answer 5 Questions)

1. Before bringing a new drug to the marketplace, extensive testing is done on the drug by administering the drug to large numbers of individuals.  Explain the importance of the scientific method, sample size, controls and variable in the drug evaluation process.

2. List the four “large molecules of life.” Identify their composition and structure, (in detail) and describe one function they perform in the cell.

3. How can you explain the occurrence of birth defects (caused by altered genes) in children and grandchildren of WWII atomic bomb victims, when the victims themselves were only mildly affected?

of embryo that can further develop into entire creature. 

4. During the past 50 years, more than 200 species of insects that attack crop plants have become highly resistant to DDT and other pesticides. Based on what you have learned in this class regarding evolution, explain the rapid and widespread evolution of resistance. Now that DDT has been banned in the US, what do you expect to happen to levels of resistance to DDT among insect populations?

 

5. Water is crucial for life as we know it. One of the most important characteristics of water is its ability to act as a solvent. Explain why water is such a good solvent for polar and charged molecules.

 

 

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